Air Wars Between Ecuador and Peru, Vol. 2

Published on
January 28, 2022
Review Author(s)
Book Author(s)
Amaru Tincopa
Other Publication Information
Illustrators: Tom Cooper; Luca Canossa; Jerry Boucher; Soft Bound ; 8.25” x 11.75”, 72 pages
Company: Helion & Company - Website: Visit Site
Provided by: Casemate UK - Website: Visit Site
Book Cover

Born in Lima, Peru, in 1977, Amaru Tincopa is a graduate in law. He developed a strong interest in history at a very young age and began researching and publishing about Peruvian and Latin American military aviation history quite early. His first book, covering the deployment history of the Aeroplani Caproni and that Italian company’s endeavor in Peru was released in 2003 for an Italian publisher. He has since published a dozen additional titles in Argentina, France, and the United Kingdom, while three others are in the pipeline. Amaru Tincopa is currently cooperating with numerous renowned military aviation history magazines around the world. This is his third book for Helion.

Helion’s latest book in the Latin America @ War series is a square back soft cover book that includes 80 gloss paper pages. This tome is a follow-up to Latin America @ War Volume 12 that focused on the July 1941 war between Ecuador and Peru. The front cover features a color painting by Jerry Boucher of a pair of Cessna Dragonflies in combat on January 28, 1981, over Falso Paquisha. The rear cover features two color side profiles by Tom Cooper. The top profile is one of ten Jaguar ES acquired by the FAE in 1974 (This profile can also be found on page 32i with a nice description). The lower profile is one of thirteen Bell 212 helicopters acquired by FAP in the early 1970s. Its bright colors were to make it easier to find in the Amazonian jungle (This profile can also be found on page 32ii with a nice description). I counted 3 color pictures and 110 black and white photographs. There are also 17 aviation color side profiles by Tom Cooper and one color profile of a Mil-6 by Luca Canossa. There are threeblack and white maps, one full color map, and 18 tables.

Amaru Tincopa follows up his previous book on the Ecuador – Peru border battles with the lead-in to the 1981 border battle. Utilizing access to Peruvian archives and several private sources, Amaru Tincopa provides the reader insight into the role each countries airpower played. The development and aircraft acquisition of both the air forces of Ecuador and Peru is covered from 1941 through 1981. The escalating political climate of the late seventies is covered well as skirmishes eventually led to early 1981 battle. Amaru Tincopa brings the battle day by day from both perspectives. February 22, 1981 saw cease-fire negotiations begin. A long lasting agreement was not reached, but all Ecuadoran troops had withdrawn from Peruvian territory (at least from Peru’s perspective). Of course all this set the stage for the next battle.

The sections include:

  • Abbreviations
  • Acknowledgements
  • Foreword by General Mario Muniz Ortega (FAP, Retired)
  • Introduction
  • A Protracted Conflict
    • The ‘Honorable Transaction’ Approach
    • The 78 Kilometre Border Gap
  • The Ecuadorean Air Force, 1941 - 1981
    • US Aid to Ecuador
    • AME to FAE
    • British Period
    • Dragonflies…
    • …Jaguars… [Page 10]
    • Table 1: Order of Battle, FAE, January 1981
    • …and Mirages
    • Table 2: Serial Numbers of FAE’s Fighter Jets, 1981
    • Support Units
    • Ecuadorean Canberras
    • Table 3: Ecuadorean Canberra B.Mk.8s
  • The Peruvian Air Force, 1941 - 1981
    • Cooperation with the USAAF
    • Table 4: EAM Aircraft, 1941
    • CAP During the Second World War
    • New Combat Aircraft
    • Aeronautics Ministry
    • Territorial Organization
    • Table 5: Peruvian Aeronautic Corps, Order of Battle, 1945
    • ARP, MDAP, and FAP
    • Crisis of the Early 1950s
    • CAP’s Serialling System of the 1940s
    • Table 6: CAP Serialling System, 1939-1960
    • Table 7: FAP Serialling System, 1960 – Today
    • Renovacion II
    • Additional Renewal
    • Table 8: Peruvian Canberra B.(I).Mk 8s
    • Martillo I: First Mirage Order [Page 26]
    • 1968 Coupd’Etat
    • Peruvian Naval Aviation
    • Follow-Ups
    • The F-5E Tiger II Affair
    • Tacnazo
    • Arms Have No Ideology
    • Peruvian Army Aviation
    • Training in the USSR
    • Initial Operational Capability
    • Table 9: FAP’s Command and Control Nodes in the NOT, January 1981
    • Additional Soviet Arms
    • Table 10: FAP ORBAT, January 1981
    • Planning and Organising Operation Rechazo
    • Table 11: Code-Names for FAP Aircraft
    • Table 12: Code-Names for FAP’s FOBs
  • Color Profiles [Page 32 i]
  • Escalation
    • Clashes of 1977 – 1978
    • Observation Posts
    • First Contact
    • Faulty Intelligence
    • Maximum Alert in Ecuador
    • Clash of 23 January
    • Emergency Response [Page 39]
    • Additional Reinforcements
    • Califa’s Reconnissance
    • Falso Paquisha
    • IF-Problems
    • Final Preparations
  • Aerial Operations from 27 January to 4 February 1981
    • 27 January 1981
    • 28 January 1981
    • First Air Combat
    • A Presidential Handicap
    • 29 January 1981: Air Strikes by Dragonflies
    • Second Contact
    • 30 January 1981: Sukhois Over Ecuador
    • Assault on PV-22
    • Table 13: Combined EP/FAP Assault Force for VP No.22, 30 January 1981
    • 31 January 1981 [Page 51]
    • Table 14: Combined EP/FAP Assault Force for VP No. 3, 31 January 1981
    • Table 15: Combined EP/FAP Assault Force for PV-4, 1 February 1981
    • 1 February 1981
    • 2 February 1981
    • 3 February 1981
  • Aerial Operations from 18 to 20 February 1981
    • 18 February 1981
    • 19 February 1981
    • Table 16: EP Assault Force for PV Jimenez Banda 2, 18 February 1981
    • 20 February 1981
    • Table 17: EP Assault Force for PV-4B, 20 February 1981
  • Aftermath
    • Ecuadorean Lessons
    • Table 18: FAP Flight Time During the Paquisha War, 1981
    • Peruvian Lessons
  • Bibliography
  • Notes

I really liked the battle between a pair of Ecuadoran Cessna A-37Bs and a pair of Peruvian Dragonflies that was depicted on the cover. What ensued was a seven minute dogfight as the four Dragonflies gyrated low above the jungle. No victories were achieved, although both sides took home some battle damage. Both sides disengaged due the weather getting worse, a lack of ammunition, and fuel levels were going critical. One of the Peruvian pilots had to shut down one engine to conserve fuel. Upon landing, about a dozen bullet holes were discovered in the starboard wing. The Ecuadoran pilots didn’t get off scot free either as at least one hole in the port wing main spar was discovered.

Amaru Tincopa leads the reader through the build-up to the 1981 action and plenty of details of the composition of both sides in this conflict. Once the battle started, you receive daily action reports discussing the operations from both sides. You get 18 tables! I really appreciated the backgrounds of the different parties involved along with the military operations and political policies that were involved. The contemporary photographs support the text, and they certainly give you a good perspective of the events described. I have already ordered Volume 1 on the 1941 battle, and fully expect an additional Volume on actions post-1981. If you own one the previous releases in the Latin America @ War series, you know what you are getting. If this is your initial entry into this series, you will be quite pleased.

My thanks to Helion & Company, Casemate Publishing, and IPMS/USA for the chance to review this great book.

Highly recommended!


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